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sydneyst
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 Posted: Thu Apr 8th, 2010 09:18 pm

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Rudd Seeks Reasons for ‘Outrageous’ Ship Stranding (Update1)


http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-04-06/australia-s-rudd-seeks-reasons-for-outrageous-ship-stranding.html

Business Week Report by Marion Rae and Ben Sharples

April 6 (Bloomberg) -- Australian Prime Minister Kevin Rudd said he wants to bring to account those responsible for the stranding of a Chinese coal carrier on a sandbank in the World Heritage-listed Great Barrier Reef.

“It is frankly outrageous that a vessel this size could find itself 12 kilometers (7 miles) in the middle of the Great Barrier Reef, and it’s time we got to the bottom of how this could have occurred and to hold those who are responsible for this accountable,” Rudd said in the Queensland city of Cairns. He earlier flew over the Shen Neng 1, which ran aground on April 3, about 100 kilometers off the northeast coast.

Australia, the largest exporter of coal, is trying to protect an area named in 1981 as a United Nations World Heritage site along with the Galapagos Islands and the Pyramids of Egypt, and which attracts millions of tourists and scientists each year. An initial report by salvage experts shows the vessel’s rudder and engine were damaged when it slammed into the Douglas Shoals at full speed, Maritime Safety Queensland said.

The threat of pollution from the Shen Neng 1 is “like a ticking time-bomb,” Australia’s Greens party leader Bob Brown told Sky News. “This is a A$60 billion ($55 billion) a year largely foreign-owned coal industry that’s making a coal highway out of the Great Barrier Reef,” he told Australian Broadcasting Corp. radio earlier today.

Surveillance showed a thin oil sheen near the 230-meter bulk carrier, Patrick Quirk, general manager of Maritime Safety Queensland, said in an e-mailed statement today. The oil patch measured 600 meters by 300 meters.

‘Minimal’ Leak

Aircraft dropped chemical dispersants to break up fuel leaking from the ship, with indications of a “minimal” amount of oil in the ocean, Environment Minister Peter Garrett said yesterday.

The ship left the Port of Gladstone last week carrying 65,000 metric tons of coal for export to China and about 975 tons of fuel oil. It’s stranded about 38 nautical miles east of Great Keppel Island in the southern part of the Great Barrier Reef. About 2 tons of oil has leaked out of the vessel, the Australian Associated Press reported.

Overnight, a second vessel arrived to assist the specialist tug on site to stabilize the Shen Neng 1, Maritime Safety Queensland said. Gladstone Port has the capacity to export 75 million tons a year, according to its Web site.     The Shen Neng 1 may have been taking an illegal short-cut through a passage between reefs, the Brisbane-based Courier Mail reported today. “Ships have apparently regularly done that, if the rumors are true,” Greens leader Brown told Sky News.

Shenzhen Energy

Data compiled by Bloomberg show the vessel is owned by Shenzhen Energy Co., a unit of Cosco Group, China’s biggest shipping company. Zhang Fusheng, Cosco Group’s executive vice president, wasn’t immediately available for comment when telephoned in Beijing today. The Shen Neng 1 was heading for the Chinese port of Bayuquan.

The 346,000 square-kilometer (134,000 square-mile) reef system off northeast Australia is largely administered as a marine reserve for about 400 varieties of coral, 1,500 species of fish and 4,000 types of mollusk, according to the UN.

“There is no greater natural asset for Australia than the Great Barrier Reef,” Rudd said today. “I take any threat to the Great Barrier Reef fundamentally seriously.”

Officials from the national marine safety agency and the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority will study the incident to decide whether any laws have been breached, Garrett said yesterday. Penalties for breaching laws governing the park extend to a fine of A$5.5 million, while the master of a ship guilty of negligence can be imprisoned for as long as three years, Rudd said today.

Last edited on Thu Apr 8th, 2010 09:23 pm by sydneyst

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 Posted: Thu Apr 8th, 2010 09:13 pm

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Foundering Coal Ship Lacked Pilot;

Criticism Abounds

shen_neng_1_aground_great...



The ship, carrying 65,000 tonnes of coal is leaking fuel oil that has produced a slick 3km long by 100m wide. The ship is understood to have approximately 975 tonnes of heavy fuel oil onboard. There is some risk the ship may break up, with the ship at risk of more damage on the reef with the current 2-3m swell.

see YouTube video for dramatic footage: 

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dw_nBkcxpSo

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDpEc7uxS5I&NR=1

Last edited on Thu Apr 8th, 2010 09:27 pm by sydneyst

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 Posted: Thu Apr 8th, 2010 09:02 pm

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Barge Arrives to Pump Oil Off Ship Stranded on Reef


http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-04-08/barge-arrives-to-pump-oil-off-ship-stranded-on-reef-update2-.html

By Ben Sharples

April 8 (Bloomberg) -- A barge has arrived at the Shen Neng 1, grounded on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, before an operation to remove 975 metric tons of fuel oil from the stranded Chinese coal carrier.

The Shen Neng 1, which ran aground on April 3, hasn’t leaked any oil in the last two days, Patrick Quirk, general manager of Maritime Safety Queensland, said. Any compensation and liability arising from damage to the Reef will be pursued “forcefully,” Environment Minister Peter Garrett said in Rockhampton today, according to a transcript from his office.

Authorities are investigating if the Shen Neng 1’s first mate was asleep when the vessel ran aground, the Australian newspaper reported today, without saying where it got the information. The Australian Transport Safety Bureau is collecting evidence and plans to release a preliminary report in about 28 days, it said April 6.

“The key thing is to make sure that those responsible for this are brought to account, and any further measures for the long-term protection of the Reef are put in place,” Prime Minister Kevin Rudd said in a radio interview in north Queensland today, according to a transcript of his remarks.

Penalties for breaching laws governing the park extend to a fine of A$5.5 million ($5.1 million), while the master of a ship guilty of negligence can be imprisoned, Rudd said today.

Favorable Weather

The weather forecast is favorable for the salvage operation of Shen Neng 1, which ran aground about 100 kilometers (60 miles) from the northeast coast, Maritime Safety Queensland’s Quirk said in an e-mailed statement.

The ship left the Port of Gladstone last week carrying 65,000 metric tons of coal for export to China and about 975 tons of fuel oil. It’s stranded about 38 nautical miles east of Great Keppel Island in the southern part of the Great Barrier Reef. As much as 4 tons of oil has spilled from the vessel, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Chief Scientist Dave Wachenseld said by phone yesterday.

“It is fair to say that a vessel of this size, of this tonnage, landing on a coral reef is going to have some impact,” Garrett said. “The extent of that impact we won’t know until the vessel, hopefully, is successfully removed.”

Australia, the largest exporter of coal, is trying to protect an area named in 1981 as a United Nations World Heritage site along with the Galapagos Islands and the Pyramids of Egypt, and which attracts millions of tourists and scientists each year.



Last edited on Tue Apr 13th, 2010 07:18 pm by sydneyst

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 Posted: Thu Apr 8th, 2010 08:58 pm

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Great Barrier Reef Rammed by Chinese Coal Ship


Australian officials are attempting to minimize the effect that oil leaking from the vessel might have on the world's largest coral reef.


from LA Times
April 05, 2010|By John M. Glionna and Ju-min Park and Kenneth R. Weiss

Reporting from Seoul Kenneth R. Weiss and Los Angeles -- Australians on Sunday scrambled to ensure that a Chinese-owned bulk coal carrier that rammed into the Great Barrier Reef would not break apart and seriously damage the planet's largest coral reef.

Peter Garrett, the nation's environment protection minister, told reporters that the government was concerned about the effect an oil spill could have on the environmentally sensitive reef, one of the wonders of the natural world that was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981.

Last edited on Thu Apr 8th, 2010 09:00 pm by sydneyst

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 Posted: Sun Mar 28th, 2010 09:45 pm

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Book Review: Flotsametrics and the Floating World
By Curtis Ebbesmeyer and Eric Scigliano

Review by Sid Perkins from Science News




Buoyant items that end up in the sea — from tennis shoes to tree branches — drift at the mercy of winds and ocean currents, sometimes for thousands of miles. Seafarers have analyzed such debris, called flotsam, for centuries: Noticing odd items washed up on European beaches led Vikings to new harbors and Columbus to discover the New World, the authors reveal.

Today, scientists recognize flotsam as a tremendous source of scientific data. As researcher Curtis Ebbesmeyer and science writer Eric Scigliano recount, beachcombing is a poor man’s oceanography. By knowing when and where a beachcomber stumbled upon an item, as well as when and where that item had entered the water, scientists can divine information about oceanic swirls of all sizes, from small eddies that spin off the Gulf Stream to looping, sea-spanning currents called gyres.

Flotsametrics is a captivating memoir chronicling Ebbesmeyer’s journey into the floating world, from his childhood fascination with water to his professional studies of currents and tides. In the book’s final chapters, the authors describe a kind of flotsam that would have been unrecognizable to early seafarers: plastic trash.
Many of the items floating within the ocean’s vast “garbage patches” — a term Ebbesmeyer coined in the 1990s — are plastics that contain potentially harmful chemicals and may not decay for hundreds of years.

For better or worse, every piece of flotsam has a tale to tell, Ebbesmeyer contends. Any beachcomber willing to pay attention can help unravel the ocean’s story.
Smithsonian Books/Collins, 2009, 286 p., $26.99

Last edited on Sun Mar 28th, 2010 09:45 pm by sydneyst

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 Posted: Sun Mar 28th, 2010 09:28 pm

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Armada of Floating Plastic Ducks

http://www.squidoo.com/armada-of-lost-plastic-ducks

29,000 Plastic Ducks Adrift in the Pacific


 


The armada of Floatee bath toys consists of yellow ducks, green frogs, blue turtles and red beavers, each marked with the logo 'The First Years'. They've been wandering the oceans since 1992, when the ship on which they were traveling from China to Tacoma, Washington, on the north-west coast of the U.S., was hit by a freak storm in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

Twelve cargo units were washed overboard, one containing the ducks. It split open when it hit the water and out popped the Floatees. Dr Ebbesmeyer is the world's leading authority on the Floatees. He first found out about the ducks when a few of the plastic raft made their first landfall, drifting onto the shores of Alaska in November 1992.

NordNordWest Wikicommons
Dr Curtis Ebbesmeyer Oceanographer and Floating Ducks Expert


 

Dr Ebbesmeyer has studied the movement of flotsam. He came to public attention through his interest in The First Years' rubber ducks (actually Friendly Floatees) a consignment of bath toys washed into the Pacific Ocean in 1992.

Dr Ebbesmeyer founded the nonprofit Beachcombers' and Oceanographers' International Association in 1996 for which he writes and publishes the magazine Beachcombers' Alert.

Photo Wikicommons

Last edited on Sun Mar 28th, 2010 09:31 pm by sydneyst

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 Posted: Wed Mar 17th, 2010 06:06 pm

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Scientists Reveal 'Secret Pathologies of Dolphins'


http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/news/weeklynews/feb10/dolphins.html

What they learned from the bottlenose who call the Georgia coast home may have far-reaching impacts for oceans and human health

 

As part of the Coastal Georgia Dolphin Health Assessment conducted late in 2009, a NOAA-led research team gave each dolphin a physical exam that included a small tissue biopsy. Analysis of the tissues revealed that the dolphins have the highest PCB levels ever reported in marine wildlife.



Researchers tracked the movements of the study dolphins for several months via radio transmitters attached to their dorsal fins. They discovered that most of the dolphins did not range very far. The implication for human health is that people and dolphins in the region are eating the same seafood.

Last summer, scientists from NOS and the NOAA Fisheries Service studied two groups of bottlenose dolphins. The first group is in Brunswick, Georgia, near a former industrial site where contaminants had leaked into an intertidal marsh. The second group is found at the Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve, a virtually pristine-looking protected area about 30 miles up the coast toward Savannah.

The purpose of the study, called NOAA’s Coastal Georgia Dolphin Health Assessment, was to gather data on the dolphins’ overall health and to measure the levels of human-made contaminants, called PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), in their tissues.
The Georgia dolphins examined in the study had a secret to tell, indeed. Co-principal investigator Dr. Lori Schwacke and her colleagues discovered that the dolphins' tissues contained the highest concentrations of PCBs ever reported in marine mammals.

"In the Brunswick dolphins, the levels are even higher than those seen in transient killer (or orca) whales from the Pacific Coast, which feed on other marine mammals, and are thus higher in the food chain. These orcas have been reported before as having the highest PCB levels in wildlife," Dr. Schwacke says. "And while PCB levels were significantly lower in the Sapelo Island dolphins, they were still higher than what we usually see in coastal U.S. dolphin populations."



A team of researchers experienced in dolphin catch-and-release methods escorts a subject to a specially equipped research vessel. Little is known about the impacts of contaminants on cetaceans. NOAA’s research on the bottlenose dolphins of coastal Georgia sheds new light on these sensitive sentinels of the sea.


While PCBs have been banned in the U.S. since the 1970s, they are known as "legacy contaminants," which, due to their persistence in the environment and their extensive use in the past, continue to be detected in soil, sediments, and living organisms. PCBs, which are known cancer-causing agents, have also been linked to other health issues.

NOAA scientists' preliminary analyses of the Georgia dolphins’ tissues detected evidence of elevated liver enzymes, suppressed immune function, and altered levels of thyroid hormones—all of which are consistent with the known effects of PCBs on living organisms.

"There are a number of reasons to be concerned about the high levels of PCBs we’re seeing in these dolphins," Schwacke continues. "For one, we learned that except for a few of the males, most of these animals do not range very far, which suggests that the contaminants are moving along the coast through the marine food web."
And people eat the same seafood that dolphins do.

The NOAA research is increasing scientists' knowledge of cetaceans—the group of marine mammals that includes dolphins, porpoises, and whales—which are hard to study in the wild. Until now, little has been known about the impacts that PCBs may be having on the health of cetaceans, which, as the typical apex predators in their habitats, are excellent "sentinel" species that may help scientists determine the overall health of an ecosystem.

As summed up by Dr. Schwacke,"we have to be careful about what we’re doing along our coasts. These contaminants don’t go away. They last for generations. The pollutants that we allow to seep into our waters today are going to be around for decades to come."

The Coastal Georgia Dolphin Health Assessment is a collaboration among NOAA's National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, NOAA Center of Excellence for Oceans and Human Health at Hollings Marine Laboratory, NOAA Fisheries Service Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program, NOAA Southeast Fisheries Science Center, Georgia Department of Natural Resources, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Chicago Zoological Society's Dolphin Research and Conservation Institute, University of Connecticut, Medical University of South Carolina, and Sapelo Island National Estuarine Research Reserve.

Last edited on Wed Mar 17th, 2010 06:11 pm by sydneyst

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 Posted: Wed Mar 17th, 2010 12:51 pm

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U.N. meeting asked to regulate world shark trade

http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=un-world-shark-trade

By Deborah Zabarenko, Environment Correspondent WASHINGTON (Reuters) - Exploding Asian demand for shark fin soup has slashed worldwide shark populations, and global regulation is the best way to save eight species now under pressure, ocean conservationists reported on Monday.

Eight types of sharks -- oceanic whitetip, dusky, sandbar, spurdog, porbeagle, scalloped, smooth and great hammerhead -- should be regulated under the United Nations Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), a marine expert at the Washington-based group Oceana said.

"The demand for the shark fin is so high, they're being taken out of the water faster than they can reproduce in the water to sustain their population," said Rebecca Greenberg, co-author of an Oceana report released at a U.N. CITES meeting on endangered species being held from March 13 to 25 in Doha, Qatar.

Sharks are under particular pressure because of the growing Chinese appetite for shark fin soup, traditionally a symbol of power and prestige that was formerly reserved for the wealthy.

One of the most expensive foods on Earth, a bowl of shark fin soup can cost $100, and a single fin can be worth $1,300, Greenberg said in a telephone interview from Doha.

Formerly a delicacy reserved for the rich because of the difficulty of catching and processing sharks, shark fins are now within reach of the growing Asian middle class because of improved fishing and processing techniques, she said.

SHARK POPULATIONS PLUMMETING
Up to 22 million pounds (10 million kg) of shark fins are exported annually to Hong Kong by 87 countries, the Oceana report said. While not seeking a ban on the trade of shark fins, Oceana wants to limit international commerce in this commodity so that the only fins that can be traded and sold internationally are from sustainable shark populations, according to Greenberg.

Attached Image (viewed 959 times):

shark1.jpg

Last edited on Wed Mar 17th, 2010 01:11 pm by sydneyst

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 Posted: Wed Oct 28th, 2009 12:10 am

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EcoVision: Black Sea Showing Signs of Recovery from Shipping
 
October 19,2009
http://www.shipmanagementinternational.com/?p=87

Excerpts: The approaching end to the recession in the overcrowded and heavily polluted waters of the Black Sea basin coincides with a marvellous gift bestowed by nature on the beleaguered world shipping industry: the infamous biological ’dead zones’ marring the seafloor near its western shores have largely disappeared.

This baffles scientists. Other biological disaster areas associated with relentless marine pollution widely blamed on the industry by the uncomprehending public are on the increase elsewhere. A jubilant discussion paper just published by the World Bank concedes that the evident and substantial improvement of the Black Sea ecosystem may be in part one unexpected effect of the industrial slowdown affecting Eastern Europe — but there are also other forces at play.

Also see: http://www.research.plymouth.ac.uk/shelf/projects/NATO_Black_Sea/NATO_Black_Sea.htm

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Last edited on Thu Oct 29th, 2009 07:29 am by sydneyst

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 Posted: Wed Oct 7th, 2009 08:31 pm

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World Coral Reef Map from Bryant (1998)


see: http://www.se2009.eu/polopoly_fs/1.13126!menu/standard/file/TEEBrapport.pdf

excerpts:

Ocean Acidification and Its Effect on Coral Reefs

The absorption of CO2 by the oceans leads to increasing ocean acidification. This alters the carbonate chemistry of seawater as pH decreases. Ocean acidification has already led to a decrease of pH of about 0.1 pH units and a resultant decrease in the availability of carbonate ions in seawater. This trend is projected to reduce pH by a further 0.3-0.4 units under a ‘business-as-usual’ scenario by the end of this century.

Corals and other marine species that are critical structural or functional components of marine ecosystems, build their skeletons from calcium carbonate. The vulnerability of these taxa to acidification depends on the form of carbonate that they secrete. High magnesium calcite is most soluble, aragonite of intermediate solubility
and calcite is the most insoluble. Coral skeletons are formed of aragonite.

A decrease in coral growth rate of 14% has already been observed on corals of the Great Barrier Reef and is likely to be a response to acidification or a combination of climate change impacts. Coralline algae, key cementing agents that are essential to reef building, secrete high magnesium carbonate and are particularly vulnerable to acidification.

Prior to the industrial revolution 98% of the world’s coral reefs were found in waters more than 3.5 times saturated with aragonite. At an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 450 ppm only 8% of coral reefs will be surrounded by waters with this saturation level.

 At CO2 concentrations of more than 560 ppm it is projected that all reefs will be in an erosional state (atmospheric CO2 double the pre-industrial value). Under these conditions coral reefs ecosystems will collapse and become dominated by algae and microorganisms. This will be accompanied by extinctions of reef-building coral taxa and reef-associatedfish and invertebrate species.


Source : Tittensor et al. 2009


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coral feefmap1998reduced.jpg

Last edited on Thu Apr 8th, 2010 09:46 pm by sydneyst

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 Posted: Fri Sep 25th, 2009 07:19 pm

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What Does the Halpern Impact Map Tell Us?


from NCEAS: http://www.nceas.ucsb.edu/GlobalMarine

See video discussion:

First, we can compare different locations to determine the least and most impacted regions of the globe. There are large extents of heavily impacted ocean in the North Sea, the South and East China Seas, and the Bering Sea. Much of the coastal area of Europe, North America, the Caribbean, China and Southeast Asia are also heavily impacted.

The least impacted areas are largely near the poles, but also appear along the north coast of Australia, and small, scattered locations along the coasts of South America, Africa, Indonesia and in the tropical Pacific.
 

For additional videos of the model and information on the SST data, please visit the National Oceanographic Data Center.
Second, the data summarized in the map provides critical information for evaluating where certain activities can continue with little effect on the oceans, where other activities might need to be stopped or moved to less sensitive areas, and where to focus efforts on protecting the last pristine areas. As management and conservation of the oceans turns toward marine protected areas (MPAs), ecosystem-based management (EBM) and ocean zoning to manage human influence, we hope our study will be useful to managers, conservation groups and policymakers.

Last edited on Fri Sep 25th, 2009 07:22 pm by sydneyst

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 Posted: Wed Sep 23rd, 2009 08:43 am

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Science Magazine Ocean Impact Map

  from paper by Halpern, et al in 2008:

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/319/5865/948
http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/319/5865/948?ijkey=.QBRU7cadgPCc&keytype=ref&siteid=sci


Fig. 1. Global map (A) of cumulative human impact across 20 ocean ecosystem types. (Insets) Highly impacted regions in the Eastern Caribbean (B), the North Sea (C), and the Japanese waters (D) and one of the least impacted regions, in northern Australia and the Torres Strait (E).

From the authors:
The management and conservation of the world's oceans require synthesis of spatial data on the distribution and intensity of human activities and the overlap of their impacts on marine ecosystems. We developed an ecosystem-specific, multiscale spatial model to synthesize 17 global data sets of anthropogenic drivers of ecological change for 20 marine ecosystems. Our analysis indicates that no area is unaffected by human influence and that a large fraction (41%) is strongly affected by multiple drivers. However, large areas of relatively little human impact remain, particularly near the poles...


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marineimpactmapscience2008.jpg

Last edited on Thu Apr 8th, 2010 09:45 pm by sydneyst

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 Posted: Sat Sep 12th, 2009 08:00 am

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Northern Passage Rich with Marine Life

Sydney has abstracted a map from the Arctic Marine Assessment
showing marine mammals, birds, sanctuaries and other critical areas along the sea routes:

Attached Image (viewed 1510 times):

arcticresourcemapfinalajpeg.jpg

Last edited on Sat Sep 12th, 2009 08:06 am by sydneyst

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 Posted: Sat Sep 12th, 2009 07:39 am

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Shipping Comes to the Arctic: How Will Impacts Be Avoided?

The NY Times features a front page article on one of the first commercial passages to the Arctic:

excerpts from: http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/11/science/earth/11passage.html


Arctic Shortcut Beckons Shippers as Ice Thaws 



Beluga Group A German ship, following a Russian icebreaker, is about to complete a shipment from Asia to Europe via Arctic waters.


Two German ships are poised to complete, for the first time, a commercial shipment transit from Asia to Europe over the waters of the Arctic north of Russia. For hundreds of years, mariners have dreamed of an Arctic shortcut that would allow them to speed trade between Asia and the West. Two German ships are poised to complete that transit for the first time, aided by the retreat of Arctic ice that scientists have linked to global warming.


Video
 


“It is global warming that enables us to think about using that route,” Verena Beckhusen, a spokeswoman for the shipping company, the Beluga Group of Bremen, Germany, said in a telephone interview.

Lawson W. Brigham, a professor of geography at the University of Fairbanks who led the writing of an international report on Arctic commerce, the Arctic Marine Shipping Assessment, confirmed that the passage of the two German ships appeared to be the first true commercial transit of the entire Northeast Passage from Asia to the West.

He credited Beluga for taking on both the summertime Arctic waters, which still pose threats despite the recent sea-ice retreats, and Russian red tape, a maze of permits and regulations.

“This may be as much of a test run for the bureaucracy as for the ice,” said Dr. Brigham, an oceanographer who is a former Coast Guard icebreaker captain. But he also said it would be a long while before Arctic shipping routes took business from the Suez or Panama Canal.

The pair of ice-hardened, 12,700-ton ships, the Beluga Fraternity and Beluga Foresight, were accompanied for most of the trip so far by one or two Russian nuclear icebreakers as a precaution, although they encountered only scattered small floes. At the most perilous leg of the journey, the passage around the northernmost tip of Siberia, the Vilkitsky Strait, ice covered about half the sea.

The Northwest Passage, a meandering set of channels through Canada’s Arctic, has been increasingly tested as well, but has not so far become a reliable commercial route, with transit limited mainly to military or research craft.

Last edited on Wed Mar 17th, 2010 06:02 pm by sydneyst

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 Posted: Sun Jul 19th, 2009 01:54 pm

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IFAW Reports on World-Wide Whale Watching



Source: IFAW

The International Fund for Animal Welfare has issued a report  revealing that world-wide, whale watching generated US$2.1 billion in tourist revenue.  

This report was issued prior to the 61st annual meeting of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) in Madeira, Portugal.  Over 80 countries are being respresented and will discuss
the future of whaling and whale conservation. 

http://www.ifaw.org/Publications/Program_Publications/Whales/asset_upload_file812_55368.pdf

Last edited on Sun Jul 19th, 2009 09:44 pm by sydneyst


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